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Linux上SVN的搭建使用

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开发人员经常会上传代码,或者改对代码做一些更改。svn就是用来将修改后的代码更新到服务器上的。下面就来看一下怎么在Linux环境下搭建svn服务(subversion)。

步骤:
1、检查是否已经有svn
2、安装subversion
3、检查是否安装成功
4、创建svn资源仓库
5、新增用户及密码,配置权限,配置资源库权限
6、启动或者重启服务
7、从机安装subversion
8、测试

一、检查是否已经有svn

如果没有安装就会是下面的样子,提示找不到命令。

[root@localhost ~]# svnserve --version
-bash: svnserve: command not found

如果已经安装,会显示版本信息:

[[email protected] ~]#  svnserve --version
svnserve, version 1.6.11 (r934486)
   compiled Aug 17 2015, 08:37:43

Copyright (C) 2000-2009 CollabNet.
Subversion is open source software, see http://subversion.tigris.org/
This product includes software developed by CollabNet (http://www.Collab.Net/).

The following repository back-end (FS) modules are available:

* fs_base : Module for working with a Berkeley DB repository.
* fs_fs : Module for working with a plain file (FSFS) repository.

Cyrus SASL authentication is available.

二、安装
在Linux下安装的是subversion,直接用yum 安装即可。

[root@localhost ~]#
[root@localhost ~]# yum install -y subversion

三、检查安装是否成功
同样用的是 svnserve –version成功安装会显示版本信息

[root@localhost ~]# svnserve --version

四、创建svn资源仓库
配置文件就是在这一步生成。

[root@localhost ~]# svnadmin create /svndir
[root@localhost ~]# cd /svndir/
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
conf  db  format  hooks  locks  README.txt
[root@localhost svndir]# cd conf/
[root@localhost conf]# ls
authz  passwd  svnserve.conf

五、新增用户及密码,配置权限
已经看到在仓库下面生成了三个文件
authz #权限配置文件
passwd #用户名密码文件
svnserve.conf #资源库配置文件

[[email protected] conf]# vim passwd
### This file is an example password file for svnserve.
### Its format is similar to that of svnserve.conf. As shown in the
### example below it contains one section labelled [users].
### The name and password for each user follow, one account per line.

[users]
# harry = harryssecret
# sally = sallyssecret
yunwei = 123456
~

新增一行:
yunwei = 123456
新增用户“yunwei”,密码是“123456”

[root@localhost conf]# vim authz


[groups]
# harry_and_sally = harry,sally
# harry_sally_and_joe = harry,sally,&joe

[/]
* = r
@admin = rw
dangerman =

[svndir:/]
@admin = rw

在[groups]下面加入:
* = r #所有用户有读权限
dangerman = ##危险分子?什么是危险分子?没有任何权限

[svndir:/] ###定义目录,项目的根目录
* = rw

[root@localhost conf]# vim svnserve.conf

这个配置文件打开下面几行前面的注释,删除最前面的空格:
anon-access = read
auth-access = write
password-db = passwd
authz-db = authz
realm = My First Repository

六、启动或者重启服务

[root@localhost conf]# /etc/init.d/svnserve start
Starting svnserve:                                     [  OK  ]

如果要指定目录要加参数:

[root@localhost svndir]# mkdir /svndir/svn
[root@localhost svndir]# svnserve -d -r /svndir/svn  ####(只是看一下可以指定目录,这个实验不需要)
svnserve: Can't bind server socket: Address already in use

问题来了!!!问题来了:
显示Address already in use

原因在这里:svnserve -d -r /svndir/svn 这条命令就是指定目录的启动。但是前面已经启动一次了。解决办法:

[root@localhost svndir]# /etc/init.d/svnserve stop
Stopping svnserve:                                         [  OK  ]
[root@localhost svndir]# svnserve -d -r /svndir/
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
conf  db  format  hooks  locks  README.txt 
[root@localhost svndir]# netstat -antlp | grep svn
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3690                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      5045/svnserve

七、测试,从机安装subversion
在次从机安装也安装一个subversion 用来测试。

注:
服务主机:192.168.1.65
从机:192.168.1.121

在从机上checkout 根目录

[root@localhost ~]# svn checkout svn://192.168.1.65/svndir/
Checked out revision 0.

需要注意的这里check的目录跟服务主机里面定义的[svndir]要一样。

[root@localhost ~]# svn checkout svn://192.168.1.65/svndir/
svn: URL 'svn://192.168.1.65/svndir' doesn't exist

如果出现在这个报错,就要检查服务主机的auth配置文件了:
如果配置文件的的目录指定的是[svndir:/],而且svndir的目录在根下(/svndir)
那启动的时候即嫑指定目录直接用/etc/init.d/svnserve start 启动即可。我们这里目录符合默认目录,不用指定了。直接用/etc/init.d/svnserve start,或者不用指定目录。
svnserve -d -r /svndir/ 这表示指定目录到/svndir/
目录不对应会报错。

7.1:在从机上从机:192.168.1.121上提交

[root@localhost ~]# ls
Desktop    Downloads  Pictures  svndir     Videos
Documents  Music      Public    Templates
[root@localhost ~]# cd svndir/
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
[root@localhost svndir]# touch xiao
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao
[root@localhost svndir]# pwd
/root/svndir
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao
[root@localhost svndir]# svn add /root/svndir/xiao
A         /root/svndir/xiao
[[email protected] svndir]# svn commit /root/svndir/xiao -m 1
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Password for 'root':
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Username: ^Csvn: Commit failed (details follow):
  n: Caught signal
[[email protected] svndir]# svn commit /root/svndir/xiao -m 1
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Password for 'root':
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Username: yunwei
Password for 'yunwei':

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
ATTENTION!  Your password for authentication realm:

   <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository

can only be stored to disk unencrypted!  You are advised to configure
your system so that Subversion can store passwords encrypted, if
possible.  See the documentation for details.

You can avoid future appearances of this warning by setting the value
of the 'store-plaintext-passwords' option to either 'yes' or 'no' in
'/root/.subversion/servers'.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Store password unencrypted (yes/no)? yes
Adding         xiao
Transmitting file data .
Committed revision 1.

注意:
1、提交代码前,必须先cd到/root/svndir/(就是checkout下来的)目录里;
2、服务器上没有的文件,在客户端需要先add预提交,再commit,如果服务器端已有的文件,直接commit

预提交的命令:

 svn add /root/svndir/xiao

提交的命令:

svn commit /root/svndir/xiao -m 1

出现committed revision 1 提交成功了。

到服务端查看有没有提交成功:
服务主机:192.168.1.65

[root@localhost svndir]# svn checkout svn://192.168.1.65/svndir/
A    svndir/xiao
Checked out revision 1.
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
conf  db  format  hooks  locks  README.txt  svn  svndir
[root@localhost svndir]# cd svndir/
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao

接下来测试更新:

从机:192.168.1.121:

[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao
[root@localhost svndir]# vim xiao

hello koby bryant !
~

修改了xiao 这个文件的内容,之前是空文件,现在加上一行内容。
然后重新提交:

[root@localhost svndir]# svn commit /root/svndir/xiao -m 2
Sending        xiao
Transmitting file data .
Committed revision 2.

服务器主机:192.168.1.65

[root@localhost svndir]# svn up
     xiao
Updated to revision 2.
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao
[root@localhost svndir]# vim xiao
hello koby bryant !
~

内容已经更改。

因为是更改内容,目录和文件已经有了,所以不用checkout了,直接svn up就可以了。

7.2、在服务器主机:192.168.1.65上提交

[[email protected] svndir]# ls
xiao  yao
[[email protected] svndir]# pwd
/svndir/svndir
[[email protected] svndir]# svn add /svndir/svndir/yao
A         /svndir/svndir/yao
[[email protected] svndir]# svn commit /svndir/svndir/yao -m 3
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Password for 'root':
Authentication realm: <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository
Username: yunwei
Password for 'yunwei':

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
ATTENTION!  Your password for authentication realm:

   <svn://192.168.1.65:3690> My First Repository

can only be stored to disk unencrypted!  You are advised to configure
your system so that Subversion can store passwords encrypted, if
possible.  See the documentation for details.

You can avoid future appearances of this warning by setting the value
of the 'store-plaintext-passwords' option to either 'yes' or 'no' in
'/root/.subversion/servers'.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Store password unencrypted (yes/no)? yes
Adding         yao
Transmitting file data .
Committed revision 3.

注意:还是要cd到/svndir/svndir里面再预提交,然后提交。
显示Committed revision 3.就说明提交成功

到从机:192.168.1.121上更新看效果:

[root@localhost svndir]# svn up
A    yao
Updated to revision 3.
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao  yao
[root@localhost svndir]# cat yao
hello rayallen

上面提交不管是在服务器主机上还是在从机上,都需要输入服务器主机的root用户密码,以及在conf文件里面设置的用户和密码。上面测试是用的文件测试,目录同样可以。
比如:
从机上:192.168.1.121

[root@localhost svndir]# mkdir xiaoyao
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao  xiaoyao  yao
[root@localhost svndir]# svn add /root/svndir/xiaoyao/
A         /root/svndir/xiaoyao
[root@localhost svndir]# svn commit /root/svndir/xiaoyao/ -m 4
Adding         xiaoyao

Committed revision 4.

服务器主机上:192.168.1.65

[root@localhost svndir]# svn up
A    xiaoyao
Updated to revision 4.
[root@localhost svndir]# ls
xiao  xiaoyao  yao

至此,svn的安装配置测试就成功了

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